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NC State Extension

Scales in Christmas Trees

Elongate Hemlock & Other Scales

Scales are some of the hardest to find and most difficult to control of Christmas tree pests. Many scale pests are of regulatory importance and trees and greenery shipped to other states and countries are frequently inspected for scales. Sound cultural practices, careful scouting, and wise pesticide use will go a long way to reducing issues with scale pests.

Online Information – NC State University

CTN 37: Elongate Hemlock Scale & Other Scales – fact sheet with photos and information on life cycles, cultural practices, and control recommendations of several scale pests.

CTN 31: Pine Tortoise Scale – fact sheet with life cycle and control measures

Pine Needle Scale – PDIC fact sheet

Monitor Pine Needle Scale – information on the life cycle of pine needle scale in North Carolina

Focus on Scale Control – including pesticide recommendations

EHS – Facts at a Glance – quick facts about elongate hemlock scale (1-page pdf version with photos)

Cryptomeria – Facts at a Glance – quick facts about Cryptomeria scale (1-page pdf version with photos)

Videos

How to Scout for Elongate Hemlock Scale

Making Wreaths to Avoid Scales (English version)

Making Wreaths to Avoid Scales (Spanish version)

Keeping Trees Scale Free (English version)

Keeping Trees Scale Free (Spanish version)

Long-Term Scale Control Studies – from the 2020 Virtual Christmas Tree Farm Tour

Insecticide Trial for Scale Control – from the 2020 Virtual Christmas Tree Farm Tour

Scouting for Christmas Tree Predators – including biological control organisms for scales

Photo Gallery

Other On-Line Resources:

University of Florida IFAS Publication #ENY2040: Elongate Hemlock Scale, and Exotic Scale Pest of Christmas Trees and Other Conifers – elongate hemlock scale risk to Florida conifers

Trees, Forests & People, Vol. 2, December 2020: Evaluating the invasive potential of an exotic scale insect associated with annual Christmas tree harvest and distribution in the southeastern U.S. – final publication from the host study to evaluate the risk of elongate hemlock scale to Florida conifers

USDA Alien Forest Pest Explorer: Elongate Hemlock Scale map

Penn State Extension: Elongate Hemlock Scales – identification and control