NC State Extension

2011 Organic Wheat, Corn, and Soybean OVT Results

Wheat

Soybeans

Corn

2011 Organic Wheat OVT Results

by Chris Reberg-Horton,George Place, and Carrie Brinton, NC State University

The organic OVT was started in 2010 with wheat to try to identify varieties that performed well under organic production conditions in North Carolina and could be recommended to farmers. We conducted organic variety trials in 3 locations in North Carolina in 2010-2011.

In Rowan County, wheat was planted on October 18, 2010 on a Cecil/Pacolet, certified organic. In March, the wheat was top-dressed with 4 tons of chicken litter to deliver 120 pounds of N per acre. Wheat was harvested at this location on June 15, 2011.

The Chowan County site was planted on November 10, 2010 on a Norfolk fine sand, certified organic. Wheat was top-dressed in March with 5 tons of chicken litter to deliver 150 pounds of N per acre. Wheat was harvested at the Chowan site on June 6, 2011.

Wheat was planted at the Lenoir County site on October 25, 2010 on a Leon sand, on land under organic management for 10 years. Soybeans were used as a green manure at planting, and were estimated to provide 150 pounds of N/acre. Wheat was top-dressed with feathermeal to deliver 30 pounds of N/acre, and was sprayed with Manganese to deliver 0.5 lbs of Mn per acre. Wheat was harvested at the Lenoir site on June 4, 2011. No sites had irrigation.

The results below come from only one year of trials.  Since this is only one year of results, growers should examine NCSU’s 2011 Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations for a more complete set of test results and production recommendations. The publication can be found at:  https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/2011-wheat-variety-performance-and-recommendations

Wheat quality data for each variety was analyzed as well, with results below. The falling number measures the effect of enzymes on wheat quality and gives an indication of sprout damage in a sample. Low falling numbers indicate more sprouting and a lower quality sample. Protein is the percent protein in a sample, also a quality indication. Again, these results are from only one year of trials.

2011 Organic Wheat Variety Trial

Variety name

Grain Yield (bu/acre)

Test Weight (lbs/bu)

Falling Number

Protein (%)

Rowan Rank

Chowan Rank

Lenoir Rank

Overall Rank

Triticale NCPT01-1433

102.4

55.8

161

11.3

17

1

1

1

Triticale NC05-2651

93.2

55.6

137

12.3

5

2

8

2

VA05W-258

92.5

59.5

319.7

11.7

6

4

5

3

DynaGro V9723

90

59.8

325

11

11

24

4

4

Progeny 185

89.8

59.8

327.1

11.5

3

15

16

5

SouthernStates MPV57

88.9

59.3

338.1

11.6

2

17

22

6

DynaGro Shirley

88.3

58.6

326.5

11.8

16

16

3

7

Oakes

87.9

60.4

353.2

11.3

12

11

12

9

SouthernStates SS8641

87.9

59.9

347.4

12.5

7

19

19

8

DynaGro Baldwin

87.8

60.9

348.4

11.4

13

10

14

10

Pioneer 26R20

87.6

60.4

344.1

10.5

10

8

13

11

NC CapeFear

87.1

61.2

377

12.3

22

21

7

12

UniSouthGenetics USG3201

87

60.6

337.3

12.4

4

18

29

13

DynaGro V9713

86.7

59.8

326.8

12.8

14

7

28

14

Coker 9436

86.3

58.4

367.1

13.2

24

3

25

16

Pioneer 26R12

86.3

61.1

339.6

12

9

12

33

15

UniSouthGenetics USG3209

86.1

59.8

351.2

11.7

21

25

11

17

SouthernStates SS8404

85.9

61.3

330.3

11.8

18

22

15

18

Pioneer 25R32

85.3

60.4

384.2

11.6

1

35

26

19

SouthernStates SS5205

85.2

60.1

348.7

11.5

27

26

9

20

SouthernStates SS8302

84.6

60.1

309.8

11.9

36

30

2

21

UniSouthGenetics USG3592

84.5

61

311

11.4

28

9

23

22

Panola

84

59.3

329.2

11.2

23

20

24

23

Variety name

Grain Yield (bu/acre)

Test Weight (lbs/bu)

Falling Number

Protein (%)

Rowan Rank

Chowan Rank

Lenoir Rank

Overall Rank

UniSouthGenetics USG3725

83.6

57.8

310.2

10.5

15

39

6

24

Progeny 125

83.5

59.3

313

11.4

29

6

30

25

NC Yadkin

83

61

.

.

8

29

39

26

Progeny 117

83

60

319.4

11.4

38

14

10

27

Coker 9553

82.9

61.1

364.6

13.5

37

5

20

28

Progeny 166

82.7

59.9

326.2

11.1

19

23

35

29

SouthernStates SS520

82.5

59.7

328.7

11

30

13

17

30

Jamestown

82.2

62.2

337.1

11.9

25

27

32

31

SouthernStates SS8309

82.1

58.4

343.3

10.7

26

34

21

32

GA031238-7E34

82

59.1

344.9

12.5

32

32

18

33

Merl

80.3

60.2

348.7

11.4

34

28

27

34

NC05-19896

79

60.3

344.5

12.4

35

31

31

35

Pioneer 26R31

78.5

60.3

330.9

11.7

31

33

38

36

GA001170-7E26

77.3

62.5

326.3

11.7

20

40

37

37

NC05-19684

76.6

60.5

346.2

12.3

33

36

36

38

SouthernStates SS560

74.9

58.6

343.2

11.8

39

37

34

39

NC Neuse

70.1

60.7

375.6

12.7

40

38

40

40

R Square

0.83

0.79

0.94

0.92

CV

11.8

2.4

6.1

4.0

RootMSE

11.8

1.9

19.9

0.5

DepMean

84.7

59.9

328.0

12.1

LSD

9.6*

1.5

50.7

1.3

*LSD of 9.6 indicates that yield differences of 9.6 bu/acre or less are not significant.**Falling number measures the effect of enzymes on wheat quality and gives an indication of sprout damage in a sample. Low falling numbers indicate more sprouting and a lower quality sample.

Varieties appearing in light grey are experimental lines not yet on the market.

This fall, Dr. David Marshall, with the USDA-ARS wheat breeding program at NCSU, will be planting his Uniform Bread Wheat Trials two certified organic locations. Next year, we will have organic hard wheat and barley data to add to the soft wheat OVT results.


2011 Organic Soybean and Corn OVT Results

The Organic Official Variety Test (OVT) began in 2009 through grant funding from the USDA Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI). This project seeks to test non-GMO varieties of corn, soybean, and wheat in organic production conditions (both on organic farms and at research stations with organically managed land) in order to provide NC organic field crop producers with more information about how available varieties may perform in organic conditions. The Organic OVT also provides crop breeders an opportunity to test advanced crop lines and discern what genetic backgrounds may outperform in organic conditions.

The primary challenge for organic soybean producers is weed control. Many of the advanced lines that breeders enter into the test are thought to produce a large canopy very early in the season. Previous research has shown that soybean varieties with a larger leaf area at two weeks after planting are better able to reduce weed biomass. Comparing crop variety performance in weedy conditions is a difficult research target because if weed pressures are minimal, varieties that compete well with weeds may not stand out. Additionally, if weed pressures are too great, differences between varieties in ability to compete with weeds can be impossible to detect because of the overwhelming crop yield losses and non-uniform nature of weed populations.

The 2011 soybean organic OVT results for Wayne and Lenoir county are presented in table 1. In Lenoir county, soybean was planted on May 9 on Leon sand soil with no irrigation. Rows were bedded on 38 inch row spacing with a target population of approximately 165,000 plants per acre. Weed control management included two rotary hoeings in the first two weeks and four cultivations between week two and week five. Harvest took place on Nov 2. In Wayne county, soybean was planted on May 11 on Kalmia loamy sand soil with no irrigation. Rows were on 38 inch row spacing with a target population of approximately 165,000 plants per acre. Weed control management included two rotary hoeings in the first two weeks followed by two weekly cultivations. Harvest took place on Nov 15.

Organic corn production has a number of challenges including access to non treated, non GMO seed. There are few organic seed options for NC organic field crop producers. For this reason, the organic corn OVT has fewer entries than the soybean test and many of these hybrids come from the Midwest. NC State corn breeder, Dr. Major Goodman, is currently working on the development of a gametophytic barrier corn hybrid for organic production. The gametophytic barrier would prevent the cross contamination by neighboring GMO corn hybrids.

The 2011 corn organic OVT results for Chowan and Lenoir county are presented in table 2. In Chowan county, corn was planted on April 25 on Norfolk fine sand soil with no irrigation. Five tons of turkey litter was applied before planting to provide 150 lbs of N per acre. Rows were on 36 inch row spacing with a target population of approximately 36,000 plants per acre (high population was planted in anticipation of rotary hoe losses). Weed control management included three rotary hoeings in the first two weeks and three cultivations. Harvest took place on September 12. In Lenoir county, corn was planted on April 18 on Leon sand soil with no irrigation. 2.5 tons of pelleted feathermeal was applied before planting to provide 150 lbs of N per acre. Rows were on 38 inch row spacing with a target population of approximately 36,000 plants per acre. Weed control management included two rotary hoeings in the first week followed by four cultivations cultivations. Harvest took place on August 25.

Below are the yield results for this first year of testing. Please use caution with this data as it is only one year of data, and therefore not very robust.

2011 Organic Soybean Variety Trial

Maturity Group
5 early

Maturity Group
5 late

Maturity Group
6

Maturity Group
7-8

Genotype

Yield (bu/acre)

Genotype

Yield (bu/acre)

Genotype

Yield (bu/acre)

Genotype

Yield (bu/acre)

NCC07-7506

49.0

** HBKC 5894

55.7

** NC Roy

57.5

** NCC06-899

62.1

**
N02-7002

44.3

* NCC06-579

55.6

* NCC07-8138

54.5

* NCC06-929

55.4

*
Osage

44.2

* HBKC 5941

54.4

* NCC05-1543

53.5

* N05-7396

49.0

Fowler

42.8

* NCC04-1555

50.6

* NCC04-619

52.1

* N 7003

48.9

Jake

42.1

* Osage

48.1

* N05-7353

51.7

* N05-7462

48.9

JTN-5503

41.1

* NC Tinius

47.6

* N06-6

50.1

* N 7002

48.7

USG 5002T

40.4

* NCC06-2188

46.2

* N07-170

46.0

N05-7452

46.8

JTN-5203

39.2

* N02-417

44.3

TN03-349

40.8

NC Raleigh

46.0

NCC06-339

38.8

Fowler

44.0

NCC06-1090

40.5

N07-373

45.3

NCC06-148

38.2

Jake

43.8

Young

40.3

N06-7564

44.2

V03-4705

38.0

USG 5601T

40.8

N06-7023

32.8

N05-316

44.1

Hutcheson

37.0

NC Burton

32.1

NCC04-624

42.9

NCC05-1336

36.6

N 8001

42.7

NCC05-1323

36.2

N05-7432

29.8

NCC05-1168

35.8

Glenn

34.5

NCC05-1261

34.3

NCC05-456

34.1

N04-57

31.8

HBKC 5025

31.3

HBKC 4926

22.4

** highest yielder
*not significantly different from the highest yielder
Varieties appearing in light grey are experimental lines not yet on the market

2011 Organic Corn Hybrid Trial

Hybrid Maturity

Genotype

Maturity (days)

Yield (bushels/acre)

 

 

 

 

EARLY

Viking 40-07N

109

65.6

**
Beck’s Superior Hybrids
GHO 54M8

104

55.1

*
Viking 50-04N

104

43.7

*

MEDIUM

Beck’s Superior Hybrids
GHO 59R5

109

88.4

**
RPM N631

110

86.7

*
Beck’s Superior Hybrids
GHO 61R2

111

84.7

*
Blue River 67MO7

112

69.9

*
Genetic Resources Inc.
20110323

114

67.9

*
Genetic Resources Inc.
20110322

113

66.9

*
Blue River 70R50

114

65.6

*
31022 x 31006

110

53.6

LATE

Blue River 73B33

115

89.4

**
Augusta A008

117

84.0

*
Augusta A007

115

80.8

*
AgVenture 8950

115

76.9

*
Doebler UT 721XY

116

76.4

*
NCSU Corn Breeding Program DKHBA1/NC 476 x NC320/NC368

119

76.1

*
Blue River 76H50

117

73.6

*
Augusta A0602

119

73.0

*
** Highest yielder within maturity group
* Not significantly different from highest yielder within same maturity group
Varieties appearing in light grey are experimental lines not yet on the market
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